Magnetic hardener

جواد نامی جواد نامی
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What is a physical modifier in a water hardener?

Physical modifiers reduce the tendency of water to precipitate without the use of chemicals and by making changes in water-soluble solutes by means of magnetic and electromagnetic fields. In this regard, terms such as hardener, scaler, descaler, anti-scale, etc. are included in this category. Non-chemical modifiers or Non Chemical Device are other names of this group of equipment. The history of the production and use of magnetic stiffeners dates back to the 1950s


Types of magnetic stiffeners:

۱- Magnetic (magnetic field)

۲- Electromagnetic (electromagnetic field)

۳- Electronically (variable electromagnetic field) are divided.

سختی گسر مغناطیسی

How magnetic stiffeners work:

۱- Magnetic stiffeners:

These types of hardeners are among the first equipment for physical correction of water. These types of hardeners have been developed after it was discovered that water that passes through rocks with magnetic properties does not deposit. The history of this group of physical reformers dates back to the late 1940s and early 1950s. Metals such as iron, cobalt and nickel are able to exhibit ferromagnetic properties. Hence they are used in the construction of magnetic blocks. The strength of magnetic fields is measured in Gaussian units. The intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field is about 25 /. To 65 /. Gauss and refrigerator compressor is 1000 Gauss. Magnetic stiffeners are made in the range of 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000, 12000 and even 47,500 Gauss. Types of magnetic stiffeners include: block magnet, tube magnet (thread and flange), clamp magnet and rechargeable rings.

۲- Electromagnetic hardener:

The magnetic field resulting from the N-ring current-carrying coil will consist of the overlap of the field created in each loop with the field of the other loops. The magnetic field lines created in the coil are seen in the figure opposite. The logic of the manufacturers of these devices in the effect of magnetic fields on ions and to prevent the formation of sediment is similar to the manufacturers of magnetic stiffeners, except that the magnetic field lines in electromagnetic stiffeners are almost in the direction of the tube. (Except for the beginning and end of the coil). In fact, the invention of early electromagnetic stiffeners was not a new invention in the field of sedimentation, and there were still problems such as the need for water flow inside the tube because the magnetic field only exerts a force on a moving electric charge. Another problem is the limited range of the magnetic field, which is induced only in the part of the tube around which the wire is wound.



۳– Electronic hardener: Electronic stiffeners are, in fact, the new generation of electromagnetic stiffeners. A new idea used in electronic stiffeners that distinguishes them from previous types is the use of AC current instead of DC current in this type of stiffener. Electronic stiffeners include one or more coils and a control box. The coils are wound around the pipe and connected to the control box. By connecting the control box to the power supply, AC current passes through the coil. The passage of variable current through the coil induces a variable electromagnetic field inside the tube. The basis of the work of electronic clamps is the creation of variable magnetic fields with the arrangement of concentric circles inside the tube, which affect the positive and negative ions suspended in water. Since the current passing through the coil is variable AC, the magnetic field induced in the tube will also be variable. Due to the magnetic properties of ferrous metals and the effects they may have on the induced magnetic field in the pipe, for the operation of the device, the material of the pipes used must be plastic or non-ferrous metals (copper or stainless steel). If the frequency used in these devices is more than 2000 Hz, according to the law of the lens, the effect of self-induction in the coil will be significant and disturb the performance of the device. In electronic stiffeners, it is possible to continuously and automatically change the AC current signal in the electronic board. In this regard: a) change in current intensity b) wave deformation (sine, square and other shapes) c) there is a change in frequency that is induced into the water through one or more coils or antennas.

سختی گسر مغناطیسی

Disadvantages of magnetic modifiers: In this section, we try to examine their disadvantages and limitations according to the reviews and studies on the performance of magnetic modifiers. In addition to these disadvantages, magnetic, electromagnetic and electronic stiffeners are examined as follows.

۱- The performance of magnetic stiffeners is local: The effect of magnetic stiffeners is completely cross-sectional and localized and becomes weaker by moving away from the magnetic blocks up to 10 cm and is not effective during the piping circuit. The manufacturers of these devices claim that the range of the device can reach several hundred meters, which is a baseless claim. Because if the water is stationary, the magnetic hardener has no effect on the water and the equipment before and after it can not be protected against the formation of sediment. Also, magnetic stiffeners are not able to protect the piping circuit and upstream installations (before the device) and only the processed water should be affected by the magnetic field and in an effective time, and the water will transmit these effects at the fluid velocity in the path.

۲- More than one magnetic hardener is needed to cover the whole piping circuit: Due to the localized operation of magnetic hardeners, if the piping circuit is long, one or more devices are not responsible and to cover the whole piping circuit, according to Depending on the complexity of the circuit, the number of connections and elbows, and the number and pressure of circulating pumps or booster pumps, it is necessary to calculate the number of devices required. On the other hand, scientific research has shown that the sediments formed by magnetic hardeners are basically a maximum of 3 to 3.5 minutes in the best laboratory conditions. This “snowball” formed is essentially unstable. For example, magnetic clamps can not be installed in the suction of the pump because the turbulence of the current causes the snowballs to break and shatter. By referring to the installation instructions of such equipment, it is observed that they can not be installed at the pump outlet.

۳- Causes severe corrosion at the installation site and subsequent equipment: Installation of magnetic blocks causes magnetic flux from N to S poles. The flow of water carrying anions (negative ions such as carbonates and sulfates …) and cations (positive ions of calcium, magnesium and sodium, etc.) under the magnetic field, causes the magnetic field fluxes to be interrupted by positive and negative ions and This generates electron volts in the area. In this case, there is a divalent metal (tube or anode), a trivalent metal surface (protective layer – magnetic or cathode) and a fluid (electrolyte) in which the passage of fluid and ions, causing a weak electric current based on electron volts. Eventually, they form an electrochemical cell, effectively corroding the metal and eventually reducing the volume of the tube.

۴- Magnetic property causes metal particles to be absorbed and finally the flow path of the fluid is blocked: By installing magnetic blocks, metal particles suspended in water absorb these strong magnetic fields. Gradually, by increasing this volume of particles, it reduces the cross-sectional area in the piping circuit, which must be stopped several times, and the water drained and physically cleaned.

۵- The operation of the device depends on the optimal velocity of the passing water: to transfer the absorbed effects from the magnetic field, the area of ​​the pipe on which the magnetic stiffener is installed to other areas of the circuit, it is necessary that the fluid must flow and must be at its optimal speed. Be current. The following curve shows the test results of the effect of the performance of magnetic stiffeners on the velocity of water in the tube. In the conditions where the best performance occurs at a speed of 3.2 m / s, the sediment reduction rate is 80%, which means that only the deposition process is slowed down and removed. Does not turn. Generally, designers of mechanical installations take into account the speed of 1 to 1.5 meters per second in their designs, in which case, by referring to the above curve, the amount of sedimentation is reduced by only 30 to 40 percent.

۶- Near the magnetic field and especially the electric motors, the magnetic stiffening effect decreases: It is obvious that the magnetic fields caused by the electric motors, generators and other devices with similar function, disturb the performance of the magnetic fields. Electromotors, on the other hand, are the driving force behind installations, and it is impossible to operate installation circuits without this equipment. For example, assuming that the allowable installation distance from the electric motors is observed when installing the magnetic stiffener on the pipe, it is still not possible to protect the snowballs created in the fluid from the magnetic field of the electric motors, because the fluid is in different places. It is moving and will pass through the pump or even solenoid or motor valves. Therefore, the effect created by the magnetic stiffener is eliminated or attenuated elsewhere in the circuit.

۷- Magnetic hardeners are considered as a supplement to resin hardeners: Most manufacturers of magnetic hardeners do not recommend the use of this equipment for hard water. In other words, when the hardness of water is higher than a certain limit, they say that hardeners They do not perform well on their own and should be used in conjunction with resin hardeners. Although resin hardeners have proven their performance in various industries, but the reason for the tendency to use physical corrective hardeners is no need for care and service and maintenance, purchase of rock salt and salt water preparation and backwash and resuscitation operations and in general Reduce maintenance personnel costs.

۸- The stability of suspended crystals formed in water is short and equal

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