What is a physical modifier in a water hardener?
Physical modifiers reduce the tendency of water to precipitate without the use of chemicals and by making changes in water-soluble solutes by means of magnetic and electromagnetic fields. In this regard, terms such as hardener, scaler, descaler, anti-scale, etc. are included in this category. Non-chemical modifiers or Non Chemical Device are other names of this group of equipment. The history of the production and use of magnetic stiffeners dates back to the 1950s
Types of magnetic stiffeners:
۱- Magnetic (magnetic field)
۲- Electromagnetic (electromagnetic field)
۳- Electronically (variable electromagnetic field) are divided.
How magnetic stiffeners work:
۱- Magnetic stiffeners:
These types of hardeners are among the first equipment for physical correction of water. These types of hardeners have been developed after it was discovered that water that passes through rocks with magnetic properties does not deposit. The history of this group of physical reformers dates back to the late 1940s and early 1950s. Metals such as iron, cobalt and nickel are able to exhibit ferromagnetic properties. Hence they are used in the construction of magnetic blocks. The strength of magnetic fields is measured in Gaussian units. The intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field is about 25 /. To 65 /. Gauss and refrigerator compressor is 1000 Gauss. Magnetic stiffeners are made in the range of 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000, 12000 and even 47,500 Gauss. Types of magnetic stiffeners include: block magnet, tube magnet (thread and flange), clamp magnet and rechargeable rings.
۲- Electromagnetic hardener:
The magnetic field resulting from the N-ring current-carrying coil will consist of the overlap of the field created in each loop with the field of the other loops. The magnetic field lines created in the coil are seen in the figure opposite. The logic of the manufacturers of these devices in the effect of magnetic fields on ions and to prevent the formation of sediment is similar to the manufacturers of magnetic stiffeners, except that the magnetic field lines in electromagnetic stiffeners are almost in the direction of the tube. (Except for the beginning and end of the coil). In fact, the invention of early electromagnetic stiffeners was not a new invention in the field of sedimentation, and there were still problems such as the need for water flow inside the tube because the magnetic field only exerts a force on a moving electric charge. Another problem is the limited range of the magnetic field, which is induced only in the part of the tube around which the wire is wound.
۳– Electronic hardener: Electronic stiffeners are, in fact, the new generation of electromagnetic stiffeners. A new idea used in electronic stiffeners that distinguishes them from previous types is the use of AC current instead of DC current in this type of stiffener. Electronic stiffeners include one or more coils and a control box. The coils are wound around the pipe and connected to the control box. By connecting the control box to the power supply, AC current passes through the coil. The passage of variable current through the coil induces a variable electromagnetic field inside the tube. The basis of the work of electronic clamps is the creation of variable magnetic fields with the arrangement of concentric circles inside the tube, which affect the positive and negative ions suspended in water. Since the current passing through the coil is variable AC, the magnetic field induced in the tube will also be variable. Due to the magnetic properties of ferrous metals and the effects they may have on the induced magnetic field in the pipe, for the operation of the device, the material of the pipes used must be plastic or non-ferrous metals (copper or stainless steel). If the frequency used in these devices is more than 2000 Hz, according to the law of the lens, the effect of self-induction in the coil will be significant and disturb the performance of the device. In electronic stiffeners, it is possible to continuously and automatically change the AC current signal in the electronic board. In this regard: a) change in current intensity b) wave deformation (sine, square and other shapes) c) there is a change in frequency that is induced into the water through one or more coils or antennas.